Kashmir rock agama | Laudakia tuberculata Gray, 1827

Kashmir rock agama | Laudakia tuberculata Gray, 1827   Kashmir rock agama is a species of lizard that belong to family agamidae which i...

Common Bronzeback tree snake | Dendrelaphis tristis (Daudin, 1803 )

Common Bronzeback Tree snake

Common Bronzeback tree snake | Dendrelaphis tristis (Daudin, 1803 )

Dendrelaphis tristis is a species which belongs to family colubridae of snakes and are also known as Common Bronzeback tree snake or Daudin's bronzeback. It is an arboreal species of snakes. The body of the species is long & slender which generally appears white from the lateral sides with a pointing head with a bronze colored line running through its back; primarily brownish dorsal body with blue scales towards head. A round white color dot is present between the parietal scales which is not present in other Bronzeback species.
Common Bronzeback tree snake | Dendrelaphis tristis (Daudin, 1803 )

Dorsal scales are smooth and are arranged in diagonal manner having the larger vertebral scales than the adjacent ones. On the ventral side it is yellowish-white in color where the scales are folded upwards. Sub caudal scales are olive with yellow or brown color tinge & are paired in a crisscross manner. Primary diet of this species includes birds, geckos, frogs and some rodents occasionally. This species is harmless and prefers to live over the tree tops rather than on ground. It can camouflage among the leaves beautifully due to its reddish brown coloration. This species of snake is very active and quick, both on the trees as well as on the ground. 

The species is widely distributed and can be sighted all over the India except North-east states after Sikkim & on Indian islands. It is also found in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Gujarat, Punjab, Tripura, Bangladesh, Nepal & Myanmar. Newly born snakes of this species are observed 15 cm in length while the average length recorded is 100 cm where the maximum length documented in these snakes is 169 cm. Head is compressed, elongated and are wider than the neck. Upper labials are yellowish-white in color. A rounded whitish spot can be sighted on top of the head which is found only in this species of Bronzeback and is helpful in its identification quickly. The species has large eyes with rounded pupils. Tongue is observed bluish-gray in color. This species bears a long & thin tail of blackish- brown color having a pointed tip. 

Hide out includes tree holes, rock crevices, thick bushes. It is a diurnal and arboreal species of snakes which mainly shows activities at moderate heights during whole day. Locomotion in these snakes is very fast in both terrestrial and arboreal environment. Behaviorally is a very alert & quick species which usually tries to escape when encountered. Usually appears non-offensive but on frightening it laterally expands much of its fore body to show its blue edged dorsal scales, while occasionally open its mouth to look bigger. Reproduction is oviparous in these snakes, where females lays upto 8 eggs inside tree holes mainly, sometimes under dense leaf litters, & rock crevices between September and February. Hatching occurs within 4–6 weeks after egg lying so they have the gestation period of 4–6 weeks. Juveniles can been observed usually during monsoon upto the onset of winters. Habitat destruction is the major threats to every serpent in today’s era including this one because these species requires dense vegetation mainly to thrive. Road mortality is another cause of reptile destruction.

Scalation Characters
Dorsal
15: 15: 11/9
Supralabial (5th & 6th in contact with eyes)
9
Preocular
1
Loreal
1
Postocular
2
Temporal
2+2
Ventral
163-197
Caudal
Paired
Sub Caudal
108-145(paired)

Literature Cited: 
Aengals, R., Kumar, S.V.M. and Palot, M.J. 2012. Updated Checklist of Indian Reptiles. Available at (http://www.lacertilia.de/AS/Bibliografie/BIB_6715.pdf). 
Agarwal, I., Mistry, V.K. and Atreya, R. 2010. A preliminary checklist of reptiles of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, West Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 17 (2): 81-83. 
Boulenger, G.A. 1890. The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma, Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor and Francis, London 
Chandra, K. and Gajbe P. U. 2005. An inventory of herpetofauna of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. Zoos' Print Journal 20 (3): 1812-1819 
Chandramouli, S. R. and Ganesh S. R. (2012) New records of Bronzeback Snakes (Serpentes: Colubridae: Dendrelaphis) from the central Western Ghats of India and a revised key to south Indian forms. Sauria, Berlin, 34 (2): 59–62 
Daniel, J.C. 2002. The Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians. Bombay Natural History Society, Oxford University press, Mumbai, India. 
Das, A., Basu, D., Converse , L. and Choudhury S. C. 2012. Herpetofauna of Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 4 (5): 2553–2568 
Daudin, F. M. 1803. Histoire Naturelle Generale et Particuliere des Reptiles. Vol. VI. F. Dufart, Paris. 
Duda, P.L. and Sahi, D.N. 1977. An uptodate checklist of herptiles of Jammu & Kashmir. Jammu and Kashmir University Review, 6 (10): 1-7. 
Dutta, S. K. and Acharjyo, L. N. 1995. Herpetofaunal resources and their conservation in Orissa, India. Zoos’ Print, 10 (7), pp. 5-8 
Fenton, L.L. 1910. The Snakes of Kashmir. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 29: 1002-1004. 
http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Dendrelaphis&species=tristis 
http://www.indiansnakes.org/content/common-bronzeback-0 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dendrelaphis_tristis 
Khaire, N.K. 2010. “Snakes”, In: Milind, L.P. (Eds.). Jyotsna Prakashan Dhavalgiri, Pune, India. 
Khaire, N.K. 2015. “Indian Snakes a field guide”, In: Milind, L.P. (Eds.). Jyotsna Prakashan Dhavalgiri, Pune, India. 
Manhas, A., Raina, R. and Wanganeo, A. 2017. Current Status and Diversity of Ophidians (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpents) in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Int. J. Cur. Micro. Appl. sci., 6 (5): 1384-1390. 
Manhas, A., Raina, R. and Wanganeo, A. 2018. Reptilian diversity of the Bhopal region of state Madhya Pradesh of central India. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians, 25 (2):104-114. 
Manhas, A., Raina, R., and Wanganeo, A. 2016. An addition to the reptilian diversity of Barkatullah university campus, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Int. J. Pure Appl. Zool., 4 (4): 306-309. 
Manhas, A., Raina, R., and Wanganeo, A., 2015. Snakes of the Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh, India with special reference to road mortality. J. Res. Biol., 5: 1868-1873. 
Masroor, R. 2011. The Common Bronzeback Tree Snake, Dendrelaphis tristis (Daudin, 1803): an addition to the herpetofauna of Pakistan. Pakistan J. Zool., 43 (6):1215-1218 
Sahi, D.N. 1979. A contribution to the herpetology of Jammu and Kashmir. Ph.D. Thesis submitted to University of Jammu (Unpublished). 
Sahi, D.N. and Duda, P.L. 1985. A checklist and keys to the amphibians and reptiles of Jammu and Kashmir State, India. Bulletin of Chicago Herpetological Society, 20 (3-4): 86-97. 
Saikia, U., Sharma, D.K. and Sharma, R.M. 2007. Checklist of reptilian fauna of Himachal Pradesh. Reptile Rap, 8: 6-9. 
Smith, M.A. 1943. “Fauna of British India”, Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 
Srinivasulu, C. and Das, I. (2008) The herpetofauna of Nallamala Hills, Eastern Ghats, India: an annotated checklist, with remarks on nomenclature, taxonomy, habitat use, adaptive types and biogeography. Asiatic Herpetological Research, 11:110–131. 
Whitaker R. and Captain A. 2004. “Snakes of India”, the Field Guide. Draco Books, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. 
Whitaker, R. 2006. “Common Indian snakes” a field guide. Macmillan India press, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

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PerSonaLife: Common Bronzeback tree snake | Dendrelaphis tristis (Daudin, 1803 )
Common Bronzeback tree snake | Dendrelaphis tristis (Daudin, 1803 )
Common Bronzeback Tree snake
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