Kashmir rock agama | Laudakia tuberculata Gray, 1827

Kashmir rock agama | Laudakia tuberculata Gray, 1827   Kashmir rock agama is a species of lizard that belong to family agamidae which i...

Indian bullfrog | Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Daudin (1803)

Indian bullfrog, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Asian bullfrog, Indus valley bullfrog

Indian bullfrog | Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Daudin, (1803)

Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, commonly known as Indian Bullfrog is a largest species of frog found in Indian, Myanmar, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and Nepal. It is also known by other popular names viz., Asian bullfrog and Indus valley bullfrog. The species is being also introduced in Maldives, Madagascar and India’s Andaman Islands where it is currently considered a pervasive species.

Hoplobatrachus tigerinus

Indian Bullfrogs prefers inhabiting areas such as freshwater bogs, lakes, streams and avoid coastal and forest areas more often depending on the topography of the zone. This species of frog mostly is nocturnal and solitary in nature. In its territory it inhabits holes and shrubbery near water sources. Hoplobatrachus tigerinus do not reside in water for a long duration as it spends the majority of its time hiding and feeding underneath vegetation. It is consider being the top predator within frogs as it can have anything lesser its size. They feed on a variety of organism such as insects, mice, young frogs, small invertebrates, shrews, roundworms, juvenile snakes, earthworms, and even small birds.

Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Chordata
Class:
Amphibia
Order:
Anura
Family:
Dicroglossidae
Genus:
Hoplobatrachus
Species:
tigerinus
Binomial name
Hoplobatrachus tigerinus  (Daudin, 1803)
Conservation status
Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)

There are vomerine teeth in two strong oblique series starting from the inner anterior angle of the choanae; inferior jaw having two but not very prominent bony processes in the front. Head is moderate; snout more or less sharp; canthus rostralis obtuse; nostrils are little closer to the end of the mouth than to the eye; interorbital space narrower than the upper eyelid; tympanum distinct & about two third the size of the eye.


Hoplobatrachus tigerinus

Fingers rather short, first extending past second; toes are moderate, nearly entirely webbed & obtuse; a significantly developed membranaceous fringe alongside the fifth toe; sub-articular tubercles moderate; interior metatarsal tubercle are variable, small and blunt, almost as long as the inner toe, crescent shaped, strongly compressed & shovel-shaped; absence of outer tubercle, a tarsal fold. Tibio-tarsal articulation reaches the ear, the eye, or a little further than. Back having longitudinal folds; a muscular fold present above the tympanum. Dorsally green or olive coloured having dark spots with a light vertebral line often. Males having two subgular vocal sacs laterally underside, prominent externally by folds of the skin on both sides of throat and are generally blackish in color.

The species is basically aquatic, is known to jump over the water surface as at on land when terrified. The adults are 17.51 cm long from snout to vent. It is categorized as Least concern (LC) by IUCN red list. Hoplobatrachus tigerinus farming was done as a food source in Thailand during 1990’s, whereas country such as china banned exporting of the species. Exportation beside anthropogenic actives (loss of habitat) is among main threat observed on the species.

During the mating or monsoon season these frogs’ changes drastically morphological to impress their counterparts as they change their colours. It’s not precisely clear how they do it but it’s assumed that the brighter the colour, the more attractive the male and more are the chances to mate.

Literature Cited:
Amphibia at Amphibiaweb retrieved on 24 December 2019.
Flores, N.A. (2005). "Rana catesbeiana". Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department retrieved 13 December 2019.
Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 2007. A Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar (3rd ed.,). Köln, Germany, In: Vences & Glaw Verlags GbR (editors). pp. 118–119. 
Hoplobatrachus tigerinus at Iucnredlist retrieved on 24 December 2019.
Hoplobatrachus_tigerinus at Wikipedia retrieved on 24 December 2019.
Indian Bullfrog at Savethefrogs retrieved on 24 December 2019.
Kotwal, A., Raina, R. and Wanganeo, A. 2018. Status and diversity of anurans (Anuran: Frogs and Toads) in Barkatullah University Campus, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. International Journal of Advanced Science and Research, 3(1): 87-89
Manhas, A., Kotwal, A., Wanganeo, R.R. and Wanganeo, A. 2015. Diversity, Threats and Conservation of Herpetofauna in and around Barkatullah University, Bhopal (MP), India. Int. J. Adv. Res. 3: 1546-1553.  
Padhye, A., Manamendra, A.K.., De Silva, A., Dutta, S., Kumar, S.T.; Bordoloi, S., Papenfuss, T., Anderson, S., Kuzmin, S., Khan, M.S. and Nussbaum, R. 2008. "Hoplobatrachus tigerinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN.  Retrieved 24 December 2019.

Rao, Mohit M. 2018. "Invasive species, lurking in the Andamans; The Indian bull frog". www.thehindu.com. Archived from the original on 18 December 2018 and Retrieved  2019.

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PerSonaLife: Indian bullfrog | Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Daudin (1803)
Indian bullfrog | Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Daudin (1803)
Indian bullfrog, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Asian bullfrog, Indus valley bullfrog
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