Kashmir rock agama | Laudakia tuberculata Gray, 1827

Kashmir rock agama | Laudakia tuberculata Gray, 1827   Kashmir rock agama is a species of lizard that belong to family agamidae which i...

King Cobra| Ophiophagus hannah Cantor, 1836

Ophiophagus hannah, King Cobra

Ophiophagus hannah, commonly known as King Cobra, sometimes as the hamadryad, is one of the deadliest species of snakes falling under the family Elapidae. Like other serpents, king cobra also receives chemical information via its forked tongue, which picks up scent particles and transfers them to sensory receptor i.e., Jacobson's organ positioned at the roof of their mouth. Besides it has also very keen eyesight; for that reason they are able to detect moving prey at a distance (100 m). After injecting venom, the king cobra gulps its whole prey with the help of their flexible jaws. The species is diurnal in nature but are capable of hunting entire day, however can be sighted a night rarely. These snakes prefer to live in dense or open forest; bamboo brushes, nearby agricultural ranges and dense mangrove mires. They stay close to streams for constant humidity and temperature. However they spend most of their time on trees or bushes. To astound a rival, male king cobras resort to grappling where male combat in king cobras is a ritual engagement in which the first one to drive the other's head to the ground wins.
Adult King Cobra (Source: Wikipedia)

Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Chordata
Class:
Reptilia
Order:
Squamata
Suborder:
Serpentes
Family:
Elapidae
Genus:
Ophiophagus
species:
hannah
Binomial name
Ophiophagus hannah Cantor, 1836
Conservation status

It feeds primarily on other snakes (like rat snake, pythons, true cobras, kraits Malabar pit viper and hump-nosed pit viper) and sometimes on some other vertebrates, like lizards and rodents. King cobras generally avoid confrontation with humans whenever possible but side to side has reputation of dangerous snake in its range. King cobra only attacks people in self-defense or to protect its eggs when cornered. This behavior is not true for nesting females, which might attack without any provocation. On sensing threat, these snakes raise their anterior body upto about 3-4feet off the ground and are also capable of following in the same position for considerable distances. It is a prominent figure in the mythos of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. It is the national reptile of India.
The key factor for identification of the species is the presence of a duo of large scales over the top of head acknowledged as occipitals, which are behind the usual "nine-plate" arrangement like in colubrids and elapids.
Head is large having round snout, shielded with large scales and is slightly broader than neck. Eyes are large eyes having round pupil. Dorsally the body of the specimens is dark olive or brown color having black, white or yellow cross bands, where the head is black in color having two crossbars close to snout and behind the eyes. The whole body is shielded with large sized smooth scales (17-19:15:15). The color of the body varies according to geographic locations. The bands of hood region are of inverted “V” shaped. The belly is usually of pale yellow or grayish color having dark shades on edge of many ventral scales (235-254), where the subcaudals are 84-104 (fore scales undivided & later scales divided). The tail in these specimens is long having pointed tip.
Key identification characters (Source: Wikipedia)
King cobra shows sexual dimorphism in size, having male individuals attaining longer sizes than females, which is an infrequent trait among snakes whose females are usually longer.
Adult king cobras can grow upto 3-4 meters in length. However, the longest acknowledged specimen measured about 5.85 m.  Although the word cobra used in its common name in spite of this, they do not fall under genus Naja but belong to its own genus (Ophiophagus: is a Greek-derived word which means "snake-eater"). King Cobras are the sole member of its own genus. Ophiophagus is a monotypic genus. King Cobras can be distinguished from other cobras of Naja genus by his size and hood as they are larger in size and the stripe on the neck is chevron instead of a double or single eye shapes found in other cobras.
This species is unusual among snakes; the females of this species are very devoted parent. This is the only species in snakes around the globe that make nest by aggregating fallen tree leaves and other wreckage,  and stays in there until the young hatches. Females keep guarding the nest obstinately by rising up their hoods, if any large animal gets too close. The eggs are incubated at a constant temperature of 28 °C inside the nest & soon after hatching starts, the female leaves the nest. Venom in juvenile king cobras is as lethal as that of the grownups. The venom of this is neurotoxic. They appear brightly discernible which often fade as they grow. The behaviors of juveniles are excessively alert due to nervousness are are highly aggressive if troubled.
In this species incubation period occurs for about 50- 79 days, during which 12-51 eggs are laid and guarded by females during the whole incubation period. The juveniles are recorded 31- 73 cm (12-29 inches) long & weigh up to 40 g.
It is the world’s longest venomous snakes. King cobras are endemic to the forest ranging from India through Southeast Asia, including, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Burma, China, Indonesia, India, Laos, Philippians, Nepal, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand and China (southern Part).
In India it is dispersed Western Ghats of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka; Goa; east coastline of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh; Mangroves of Sundarban; Uttarakhand,  Bihar, Uttar Pradesh,  West Bengal (northern parts) & Andaman Islands. Where, the type locality of the species is reported Sundarban.
In spite of its huge geographic range, in 2010 the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species labeled it as vulnerable species. The assessment was based on the fact that the population of king cobra had dropped by 30 % from 1935-2010 due to habitat destruction & over harvesting (in some countries). King cobras are also listed as an Appendix II animal within CITES.
(Source: indiansnakes.org)
Literature Cited:

Acharji, M.N., and Kripalani, M.B. 1952. On a collection of Reptilia and Batrachia from the Kangra and Kulu Valleys, Western Himalayas. Records of Indian Museum, 49 (2): 175-184.
Aengals, R., Kumar, S.V.M., and Palot, M.J. 2012. Updated Checklist of Indian Reptiles (http://www.lacertilia.de/AS/Bibliografie/BIB_6715.pdf)
Agarwal, I., Mistry, V.K., and Atreya, R. 2010. A preliminary checklist of reptiles of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, West Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 17 (2): 81-83.
Ali, W., Arshad J., Syed M.H., Hamda A., and Ghazala J. 2016. The Amphibians and Reptiles Collected from Different Habitat Types in District Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Zool., 48(4): 1201-1204 - get paper here
Anderson, J. 1871. On some Indian reptiles. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871: 149-211 - get paper here
Avadhani, R. 2005. Snakes of India. Reptilia (GB) (41): 32-37 - get paper here
Bashir, T., Poudyal K., Bhattacharya, T., Sathyakumar, S., Subba J.B. 2010. Sighting of King Cobra Ophiophagus hannah in Sikkim, India: A new altitude record for the northeast. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 2 (6): 990-991
Bhaisare, D., Ramanuj, V., Shankar, P.G., Vittala, M., Goode, M., and Whitaker, R. 2010. Observations on a Wild King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), with emphasis on foraging and diet. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians, 17(2): 95–102.
Bhupathy, S., and Sathishkumar N. 2013. Status of reptiles in Meghamalai and its environs, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 5 (15): 4953-4961 - get paper here
Blyth, E. 1855. Notices and descriptions of various reptiles, new or little known [part-II]. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Calcutta, 23 (3): 287-302. - get paper here
Boulenger, G.A.1890. The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma, Reptilia & Batrachia, Taylor and Francis, London.
Cantor, T.E. 1836. Sketch of an undescribed hooded serpent, with fangs and maxillar teeth. Asiatic Res, 19: 87−93.
CITES List of animal species used in traditional medicine". Assessed on, 30 September 2018.
Daniel, J.C. 1983. The Book of Indian Reptiles. Bombay Natural History Society, Oxford University press, Mumbai, India.
Daniel, J.C. 2002. The Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians. Bombay Natural History Society, Oxford University press, Mumbai, India.
Das, A., Saikia, U., Murthy, B.H.C.K., Dey, S., and Dutta, S.K. 2009. A herpetofaunal inventory of Barail Wildlife Sanctuary and adjacent regions, Assam, north-eastern India. Hamadryad, 34 (1):117 – 134
Das, I., Dattagupta, B., and Gayen, N.C. 1998. History and catalogue of reptile types in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India. J. South Asian nat. Hist., 3(2):121-172
Duda, P.L., and Sahi, D.N. 1977. An uptodate checklist of herptiles of Jammu & Kashmir. Jammu and Kashmir University Review, 6 (10): 1-7.
Dutta, S.K., and Acharjyo, L.N. 1995. Herpetofaunal resources and their conservation in Orissa, India. Zoos’ Print,10 (7): 5-8
Ganesh, S.R., and Asokan J.R. 2010. Catalogue of Indian herpetological specimens in the collection of the Government Museum Chennai, India. Hamadryad, 35 (1):46-63.
Ganesh S.R., Chadramouli S.R., Sreekar R., and Shankar P.G. 2013. Reptiles of the Central Western Ghats, India- a reappraisal and revised checklist, with emphasis on the Agumbe Plateau. Russian Journal of Herpetology. 20 (2):134-142.
Ganesh, S.R., and Asokan, J.R. 2010. Catalogue of Indian herpetological specimens in the collection of the Government Museum Chennai, India. Hamadryad, 35 (1):46-63
Harikrishnan, S., Vasudevan, K., and Choudhury B.C. 2010. A review of herpetofaunal descriptions and studies from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, with an updated checklist. Recent Trends in Biodiversity of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, pp. 387-398
Kannan, P., and Venkatraman, C. 1998. Reptile fauna of Siruvani Hills, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu. Cobra, 33: 6-9
Khaire, N.K. 2010. “Snakes”, In: Milind, L.P. (Eds.). Jyotsna Prakashan Dhavalgiri, Pune, India.
Khaire, N.K. 2015. “Indian Snakes a field guide”, In: Milind, L.P. (Eds.). Jyotsna Prakashan Dhavalgiri, Pune, India.
Khan, Q.A., and Khan, S.M. 1996. Snakes of state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Proceedings of. Pakistan Congress of Zoology, 16: 173-182.
Malnate, E.V. 1966. Amphiesma platyceps (BLYTH) and Amphiesma sieboldii (GÜNTHER): sibling species (Reptilia: Serpentes). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 63 (1): 1-17 - get paper here
Manhas, A., Kotwal, A., Wanganeo, R.R., and Wanganeo, A. 2015. Diversity, Threats and Conservation of Herpetofauna in and around Barkatullah University, Bhopal (MP), India. Int. J. Adv. Res. 3: 1546-1553.                       
Manhas, A., Raina, R., and Wanganeo, A. 2017. Current Status and Diversity of Ophidians (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpents) in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, Central IndiaInt. J. Cur. Micro. Appl. sci., 6 (5): 1384-1390.
Manhas, A., Raina, R., and Wanganeo, A. 2018. Reptilian diversity of the Bhopal region of state Madhya Pradesh of central India. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians, 25 (2):104-114.
Manhas, A., Raina, R., and Wanganeo, A. (2018). Reptilian diversity and their distribution in the District Doda of State Jammu & Kashmir, India. Reptiles & Amphibians, 25 (3):164-169.
Manhas, A., Raina, R., and Wanganeo, A. 2016. An addition to the reptilian diversity of Barkatullah university campus, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Int. J. Pure Appl. Zool., 4 (4): 306-309.                                                             
Manhas, A., Raina, R., and Wanganeo, A., 2015. Snakes of the Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh, India with special reference to road mortality. J. Res. Biol., 5: 1868-1873.
Manhas, A., Raina, R., and Wanganeo, A., 2016. An assessment of reptilian diversity and their distribution in Jammu and Kashmir state from Jammu city in northern India: A case study. IJFBS, 3: 20-23
Murthy, K.L.N., and Murthy K.V.R. 2010. Dead King Cobra Ophiophagus hannah found near Srikakulam in northern coastal Andhra Pradesh. Reptile Rap, (10):27-28
Murthy, K.L.N., and Murthy, K.V.R. 2012. Sightings of King Cobra Ophiophagus hannah in northern coastal Andhra Pradesh. Reptile Rap, (14), pp. 29-32
Murthy, T. S. N. 1990. Illustrated Guide to the Snakes of the Western Ghats, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper No. 114
Murthy, T.S.N., and Sharma, B.D. 1976. A contribution to the Herpetology of Jammu and Kashmir. British Journal of Herpetology, 5: 533-538.
Murthy, T.S.N. and Sharma, B.D. 1979. Second report on the herpetofauna of Jammu and Kashmir. The snake, 11: 234-241.
Platt, S.G., Ko, W.K., and Rainwater, T.R. 2012. On the Cobra Cults of Myanmar (Burma). Chicago Herpetological Society. 47(2): 17–20.
Rao, C., Talukdar. G., Choudhury, B.C., Shankar, P.G., Whitaker, R., and Goode, M. 2013. Habitat use of King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) in a heterogeneous landscape matrix in the tropical forests of the Western Ghats, India. Hamadryad, 36 (2): 69 – 79
Sahi, D.N. 1979. A contribution to the herpetology of Jammu and Kashmir. Ph.D. Thesis submitted to University of Jammu (Unpublished).
Sahi, D.N. and Duda, P.L. 1985. A checklist and keys to the amphibians and reptiles of Jammu and Kashmir State, India. Bulletin of Chicago Herpetological Society, 20 (3-4): 86-97.
Sahi, D.N. and Duda, P.L. 1986. Affinities and distribution of amphibians and reptiles of Jammu and Kashmir state (India). Bulletin of Chicago Herpetological Society, 21(3-4): 84-88.
Saikia, U., Sharma, D.K., and Sharma, R.M. 2007. Checklist of reptilian fauna of Himachal Pradesh. Reptile Rap, 8: 6-9.
Salama, R., Sattayasai, J., Gande, A.K., Sattayasai, N., Davis, M., and Lattmann, E. 2012. Identification and evaluation of agents isolated from traditionally used herbs against Ophiophagus hannah venom. Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics6 (1): 18–23.
Sangha, H.S., Naoroji, R., and Sharma, M. 2011. Sighting of King Cobra Ophiophagus Hannah in Arunachal Pradesh, India: A new altitude record for northeastern India. Reptile Rap, (11), pp. 17
Shankar, P.G., and Whitaker, N. 2009. Ecdysis in the King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah). Russian Journal of Herpetology, 16 (1): 1-5
Smith, M.A. 1943. “Fauna of British India”, Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London.
Srinivasulu, C., and Das I. 2008. The herpetofauna of Nallamala Hills, Eastern Ghats, India: an annotated checklist, with remarks on nomenclature, taxonomy, habitat use, adaptive types and biogeography. Asiatic Herpetological Research, 11: 110–131
Stuart, B., Wogan, G., Grismer, L., Auliya, M., Inger, R.F., Lilley, R., Chan-Ard, T., Thy, N., Nguyen, T.Q., Srinivasulu, C., and Jelić, D. (2012). "Ophiophagus hannah"IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T177540A1491874.en
Wallach, V., Williams, K. L. and Boundy, J. 2014. Snakes of the World: A catalogue of living and extinct species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press.
Whitaker, R. (2005) Common Indian Snakes, A Field Guide. Macmillian Publishers
Whitaker, R. 2006. “Common Indian snakes” a field guide. Macmillan India press, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Whitaker, R., and Captain, A. 2004. “Snakes of India”, the Field Guide. Draco Books, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

COMMENTS

[socialcounter]
[facebook][#][2.6K]
[twitter][#][10K]
[youtube][#][28]
[rss][#][100]
[linkedin][#][80]
[instagram][#][400]
Name

Ahaetulla nasuta,1,Amphiesma stolata,1,Argyrogena fasciolata,1,Banded racer,1,Beer Dev,1,Bergenia ciliata,1,Black Headed Royal Snake,1,Blind Snake,1,Blunt-nosed viper,1,Boiga trigonata,1,Brahminy Worm Snake,1,Braid snake,1,Buff Striped KeelBack | Amphiesma stolatum,1,Calotes versicolor,1,Central Asian Cobra,1,Checkered Keelback,1,Chenab Valley,2,Cobra,1,Common Cat Snake,2,Common Krait| Bungarus caeruleus,1,Common Kukri,1,Common Wolf Snake,1,Conflux,1,Cover Letter Tips,1,Cyrtodactylus himalayanus,1,Daboia russelii,1,Dendrelaphis tristis,1,Dhaman || Rescue,1,Duttaphrynus stomaticus,1,Echis carinatus,1,Egret,1,Elaphe hodgsoni,1,Eryx conicus,1,Eryx johnii,1,Families,1,Flowers,3,Flowers. photography,1,Ganges,1,Gloydius himalayanus,1,Green vine snake,1,Hemidactylus brookii,1,Herpetoreas platyceps,1,Himachal Pradesh,1,Himalayan Bent-toed Gecko,1,Himalayan pit viper,1,Himalayan Ratsnake,1,History,1,Hoplobatrachus tigerinus,1,Indian bullfrog,1,Indian marbled toad,1,Indian python,1,Indian Rat Snake,1,Indian Rat Snake || Rescue III,1,Indian Rat Snake || Rescue IInd,1,Indotyphlops braminus,1,Jan's Cliff racer,1,Kailash Kund (Kablas),1,Kashmir rock agama,1,Khajuraho,1,Khatron Ke Khiladi,1,Laudakia agrorenisis,1,Laudakia tuberculata,1,Leith's sand snake,1,Lycodon aulicus,1,Macrovipera lebetinus,1,Malabar pit viper,1,Malus pumila,1,Manimahesh : The Jewel bearer,1,Mobile photography,2,Monocled cobra,1,Morchella,1,Myna,1,Naja naja,1,Naja oxiana,1,Nature photographs,1,Oligodon arnensis,1,Oligodon arnensis || Rescue,1,Ophiophagus hannah,1,Photography,1,Pit viper,2,Platyceps rhodorachis,1,Poisnous,1,Psammophis leithii,1,Ptyas mucosa,2,Ptyas mucosa | Rescue,1,Ptyas mucosa || Rescue II,1,Python molurus,1,Red Sand Boa,1,Reptile,1,Rhododendron arboreum,1,Russell's viper,1,Saraswati,1,Snake Bite & First Aid Tips,1,Snake Books,1,Snake World,1,Snakes,2,Snakes & Man,1,Spalerosophis atriceps,1,Sparrow Babies,1,Subaar Nag,1,Surkhanda Devi Temple,1,The Quince: Cydonia oblonga,1,Trimeresurus malabaricus,1,Triveni Sangam,1,Tulips,1,Venomous,1,Viburnum grandiflorum,1,Wolf Snake,1,Yamuna,1,
ltr
item
PerSonaLife: King Cobra| Ophiophagus hannah Cantor, 1836
King Cobra| Ophiophagus hannah Cantor, 1836
Ophiophagus hannah, King Cobra
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-aXRimJL_iFM/XLBGF8uF9wI/AAAAAAAACsk/9dQlUzp5tKI_tLvJabfmEER_g4oCeOS6gCLcBGAs/s640/King-Cobra-India.jpg
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-aXRimJL_iFM/XLBGF8uF9wI/AAAAAAAACsk/9dQlUzp5tKI_tLvJabfmEER_g4oCeOS6gCLcBGAs/s72-c/King-Cobra-India.jpg
PerSonaLife
https://www.personalife.org/2019/04/king-cobra-ophiophagus-hannah-cantor.html
https://www.personalife.org/
https://www.personalife.org/
https://www.personalife.org/2019/04/king-cobra-ophiophagus-hannah-cantor.html
true
2465216499236944575
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy